Printer-friendly version A traditional model of infectious disease causation, known as the Epidemiologic Triad is depicted in Figure 2. The triad consists of an external agent, a host and an environment in which host and agent are brought together, causing the disease to occur in the host. A vector, an organism which transmits infection by conveying the pathogen from one host to another without causing disease itself, may be part of the infectious process. A classic example of a vector is the Anopheles mosquito.
Share via Email Just because people flock to the shops when it's cold outside doesn't mean low temperatures boost spending. Correlation is not causation.
Correlation is not causation … " At times during my statistics studies I felt like Jack Nicholson in the film The Shiningin which we witness his descent into madness as he types the same sentence over and over again, "All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.
All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy … " "Correlation is not causation" is a statistics mantra. It is drilled, military school-style, into every budding statistician.
But what does it actually mean?
Well, correlation is a measure of how closely related two things are. Think of it as a number describing the relative change in one thing when there is a change in the other, with 1 being a strong positive relationship between two sets of numbers, —1 being a strong negative relationship and 0 being no relationship whatsoever.
As a seasonal example, just because people in the UK tend to spend more in the shops when it's cold and less when it's hot doesn't mean cold weather causes frenzied high-street spending. A more plausible explanation would be that cold weather tends to coincide with Christmas and the new year sales.
Despite embodying an important truth, the phrase has not caught on in the wider world.
It's easy to see why. Our preconceptions and suspicions about the way things work tempt us to make the leap from correlation to causation without any hard evidence. Correlations between two things can be caused by a third factor that affects both of them.
This sneaky, hidden third wheel is called a confounder. Arguably the most well known and important example of a correlation being clear but caustion being in doubt concerned smoking and lung cancer in the s.
There had been a sixfold increase in the rate of lung cancer in the preceding two decades. Nobody disputed that there was a correlation between lung cancer and smoking, but to prove that one caused the other would be no mean feat.
There might be a confounder that was responsible for the correlation between smoking and lung cancer. The increased rate could have been the result of better diagnosis, more industrial pollution or more cars on the roads belching noxious fumes.
Perhaps people who were more genetically predisposed to want to smoke were also more susceptible to getting cancer? It took a study involving more than 40, doctors in the UK to show conclusively that smoking really does cause cancer.I’m not reinventing the wheel - I take what you have & make it better Essay on nursing profession Essay on nursing profession.
Posted on October 7, by. What is a causation essay true. · tation to disease causation did not occur in an historical vacuum. Signaling a new phase in the professionalization of epidemiology, these texts were developed to serve as fundamental teaching tools for the growing number of epidemiology courses being offered in tranceformingnlp.com Epidemiology and the web of causation approaches to obtaining data [6, 11, , it is important to consider how the present-day multi-.
· This essay has been submitted by a law student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Causation is only important in situation where a crime has been committed. Causation can be established through either factual or legal causation.
The method for establishing a factual causation is the ‘But For’ tranceformingnlp.com://tranceformingnlp.com Wheel of causation conceptual model for epidemiologic study of the association between smoking and back pain.
Drawing from BPS theory, the model includes variab. The wheel of causation, an alternative model, according to Harkness and DeMarco (), “ de-emphasizes the agent as the sole cause of disease, whereas it emphasizes the interplay of physical, biological, and social environments” (p).