In those days, the trip to Europe took many weeks, but his arrival in the Dutch port was not the end of his long journey.
Priority has therefore been given to a range of measures for run-off and soil erosion control. One such measure, the use of stone bunds built on natural contour lines, has been promoted and supported by governments, NGOs, extension agents and farmers for more than 25 years and is now widely used in the Sahel.
The best results are often achieved when contour stone bunds are used in combination with the planting of grass and trees on the contour lines. In wetter years they help to reduce the climate-induced risk of run-off and erosion.
In drier years, they contribute to effective rainwater harvesting. In addition, since heavy rainfall events in the Sahel are projected to increase with global warming, durable and effective soil erosion control structures will assume even greater importance and constitute an important adaptation measure.
Impacts and lessons learned Region-wide, it is estimated that aboutha of land has been reclaimed. However, contour stone bunds are labour intensive and costly.
However, this required the quarrying and transport of 2. Nevertheless, they have proven to be both highly effective and durable and often act as a catalyst for additional innovations such as tree or grass planting on the bunds, as well as increased levels of nutrient inputs on field crops.
Neither practices based solely on mineral fertilizers nor solely on organic matter management are sufficient for sustainable agricultural production. Well-adapted, disease- and pest-resistant germplasm is necessary to make efficient use of available nutrients. Good agronomic practices - in terms of planting dates, planting densities, and weeding - are essential for ensuring the efficient use of scarce nutrient resources.
In addition to these principles, ISFM recognizes the need to target nutrient resources within crop rotation cycles, preferably including legumes, thus going beyond recommendations for single crops.
What's more, a positive synergistic effect between organic and inorganic inputs is often observed. As a result, the efficiency of rainfall-use is greatly enhanced. IFSM advocates strategic timing and placement when using inorganic nitrogenous fertilizers, often at rates that are much lower than recommendations based on the sole use of inorganic fertilizers.
This contributes to mitigation through reduced nitrous oxide emissions. For example, in Malawi, about 30, farmers, as well as several hundred farmer associations and agricultural extension workers, have been trained in ISFM technologies Nyasimi et al.
However, for widespread adoption to occur, an enabling environment must be created through: Governments that acts as enablers for fertilizer imports. An effective extension service, able to deliver the technology to the farmers. A vibrant agro-dealer private sector that ensures efficient fertilizer and seed availability and distribution.
This is necessary due to the variability that exists between farms. Each and every farm is distinguished in terms of farmer goals, farm size, labour availability, ownership of livestock, importance of off-farm income, as well as in the amount of production resources such as cash, crop residues and animal manures that different farming families are able to invest in their farm.
More recently, it has become widely promoted and adopted in Latin America. In Africa, however, adoption rates by small-scale farmers has been slower and more context specific FAO CA is based on three principles Richards et al. Retention of crop residues or other soil surface cover: Use of crop rotations: Crop rotation, ideally with legumes, helps reduce build-up of weeds, pests and diseases.
Where farmers do not have enough land to rotate crops, intercropping can be used. Relationship to CSA CA supports adaptation through reduced risk of rainfall run-off and soil erosion and can help buffer against drought through increased storage of water in the soil profile.
CA can mitigate climate change through carbon sequestration in the soil, though this benefit may not be as large on a global level as has been hoped Richards et al. Positive economic returns and less use of water, labor, nitrogen, and fossil fuel energy per unit food produced were also achieved Ladha et al.Current issues dealing with the government and political situation in Ethiopia, as well as human rights, freedom of the press and the future of Ethiopia and its people.
Chart The Impact of Women's Participation in the Workforce on Real GDP per Capita. Note: The balance of the increase in real GDP per capita was the result of productivity improvements. Source: Labour Force Survey, Census of Population, Income and Expenditure Accounts, Statistics Canada; Department of Finance Canada calculations.
Introduction Poverty and social exclusion play a critical role in the overall well-being and mental health of millions of people. With the increasing incidences of poverty and social exclusion more and more people are falling into crisis and resultantly are developing issues such as suicide.
Presentation by PROF. IBRAHIM A. GAMBARI Under-Secretary-General and Special Adviser to the United Nations Secretary-General THE CHALLENGES OF NATIONS BUILDING.
As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.
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