Digitalization in the process industries — Evidence from the German water industry Marius Stoffels and Christian Ziemer Research on the adoption of digital technologies has largely omitted the process industries. In this study, we address this research gap by presenting empirical evidence from a questionnaire survey comprising 86 responses from members of the German Water Partnership GWP association. Our results indicate that firms in the water industry lay emphasis on projects harnessing digital technologies, while the execution and implementation still faces significant challenges that we discuss below.
Considering this, our coffee beverages are important contributions to human dietary intake for hydration. Water, after all, is necessary to sustain life. Water H2O molecules themselves are known as polar because the hydrogen atoms and oxygen atom have differing electrical charges.
The hydrogens have a slight positive charge, while the oxygen has a slight negative charge. Because these individual molecules have a polarity, they can attract other molecules with charged ions.
Temperature also affects the rate at which compounds are soluble in water, as with increasing temperature all reactions speed due to the altered energy of the molecules.
That being said, not all water is equal! In many countries there are strict public health standards for drinking water supplies to ensure healthy and uncontaminated hydration.
In others, citizens would be lucky to secure this precious resource. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency works to regulate this at a federal level, and states or cities within them are able to create even higher water standards if they deem them warranted.
Of course, these standards do not have to do with creating artisanal specialty beverages, but serve a purpose of health and safety.
It also turns out that water is not just H2O. In this way again, not all waters are equal, even within the United States or within one city.
All of these can easily influence the taste of the coffee in the cup and have characteristic off-flavors and aromas. SCAA created the water standards for brewed coffee and the Water Quality Handbook to enable the specialty coffee community to serve the best tasting coffee beverages possible Beeman and others A copy of this standard is available on our resources web page and the water quality handbook in our store.
Should be odor free. This is an olfactory measurement. Obvious odors such as those caused by sulfates, bacteria, or other micro-organisms, chlorine, or phenol compounds, for example, should be treated for and removed.
This is measured visually. All issues, such as cloudiness, red or orange tinge, or particulates, should be treated depending on the specific issue.
Chlorine is added to water by municipal systems to prevent biological contamination micro-organisms. The World Health Organization reports that chlorine is present in most disinfected water at concentrations of 0.
It usually presents with a taste think pool water or odor. TDS is a key way we measure water in the coffee industry. There are federal standards for TDS to enable safe drinking water, but again these are not designed for optimal beverage consumption.
However, this standard does not define what makes up that TDS, which can be any variety of minerals or dissolved solids. A high TDS generally indicates hard water.
Calcium hardness is the amount of hardness created specifically by calcium ions in water.
Total hardness is a measurement of the cations in water and can be created by minerals with a positive charge. Hardness is not bad for health, but considered more of an aesthetic factor.
The presence of some dissolved mineral material in drinking water is typically what gives the water its characteristic and pleasant taste. This is the measurement of the concentration of negative ions in the water.
Total alkalinity is measured by measuring the amount of acid e. Too much alkalinity can affect extraction and coffee flavor. Pure water should have a neutral pH of 7. Water becomes basic when there is a high presence of hydroxide OH- ions, which can result in water having a bitter taste.
Both of these situations can alter the brewing reactions and the cup. Water softeners can also contribute to the sodium content of water. Salts can affect the way sweetness or sourness is perceived in the mouth, and therefore high amounts should be avoided in water used for brewing coffee.
Water Quality Handbook, 2nd ed. Specialty Coffee Assocation of America. The Science of Qualtiy, 2nd ed.Welcome to Studio Marco Fantozzi – Innovative Solutions to Leverage Performance in Water Industry! Studio Marco Fantozzi was created in by Marco Fantozzi to assist Water Utilities, regulators and technology providers to promote the IWA (International Water Association) practical approach to leakage management through the use of customised software, training, consultancy, innovative.
Introduction. Demulsification is an intricate process as oilfield emulsions are, in principal, complex, stable liquid-liquid colloidal suspensions comprising of dispersed/internal phase, continuous/external phase, and emulsifying agents basically present at the oil-water interface. Biotechnology is the use of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi in the manufacturing and services industries.
These include chemical manufacturing such as ethanol, acetone, organic acid, enzymes, and perfumes. In the chemical industry, bacteria are most important in the production of pharmaceuticals. Packaged Water Industry in India Packaged water or Bottled water industry, colloquially called, the mineral water industry, is a symbol of new life style emerging in India.
Use of mineral water has gradually increased in India due so widespread shortage of pure hygienic potable water. The industry’s ability to continue generating growth, creating jobs and enabling national development and regional integration is dependent on whether it recognizes and adapts to key trends and transformational issues that will affect the industry in the short, medium and long term.
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