Zeus Historia Ecclesiastica, Eusebius, c. Constantine was the ruling spirit at Nicaea and he ultimately decided upon a new god for them. To involve British factions, he ruled that the name of the great Druid god, Hesus, be joined with the Eastern Savior-god, Krishna Krishna is Sanskrit for Christand thus Hesus Krishna would be the official name of the new Roman god.
There was no center of production, no controlled distribution or transmission, nor were there scriptoriums available for mass production. When the first century writers first penned their gospel account or letter, it was sent to the burgeoning church for which it was intended where it was read aloud for the sake of the whole congregation.
The church in turn made copies and circulated them to other churches, particularly in the region, which in turn made copies and passed them along. In addition to copies made for the sake of the whole congregation, personal copies were also made and exchanged.
In this way, the texts of the New Testament quickly spread to the four corners of the Roman Empire and even beyond.
The Quality and Character of the Texts In the first centuries of the church, there was no single center of production, no controlled distribution or transmission, nor were there any scriptoriums available to Christians for mass production.
For instance, the text of a third century manuscript of the gospels, P75, is virtually identical to that in the fourth century Codex Vaticanus. Fortunately, prior to the Constantinian period 4th centurythere were no centralized mass-productions of manuscripts that might have allowed these new readings to effectively erase the originals.
Carol F. Ellertson, “New Testament Manuscripts, Textual Families, and Variants” in How the New Testament Came to Be: The Thirty-fifth Annual Sidney B. Sperry Symposium, ed. Kent P. Jackson and Frank F. Judd Jr. (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University; Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, ), 93– Greek copies or manuscripts of the New Testament text have hitherto been and probably will continue to be the chief source of data in this great field. For determining the existence of the text in its most ancient form the autographs are of supreme value. Contact. W. Plano Parkway STE Plano, TX USA. [email protected]
This suggests that, if innovative material tends to be preserved, so too will the original. James White describes determining the original reading of the New Testament books as putting together a piece puzzle with pieces; that is to say, we have little reason to fear the original words of the New Testament writers have been lost, rather we must determine what has been added into the text over the centuries by cross comparing the various textual families.
This is not to say that there are no unresolved, viable early or potentially early variants in the New Testament - as reflected in footnotes and texts of most modern translations. However, it is fortunate that none of these have any impact on the major doctrines of the Christian Church8.
Distribution of Extant Manuscripts The Roman world offered two means of delivering a letter; the official post and the informal mail service which was the common practice of sending a letter along with a merchant or traveler bound for the desired city. The latter was presumably the method by which the New Testament texts were passed along in their earliest days.
As inefficient as it may sound, the informal mail service was capable of transmitting a letter miles across national borders in fourteen days or miles in four3 even well before the Roman period which was marked by improved roads and unprecedented ease of travel2. Because of this exceptional mobility of texts, it is no longer tenable to maintain the notion that any textual family could have remained isolated from the rest for any length of time, which means no textual family could have gone untested by others for long3.
This is fortunate for us due to the manner in which our earliest manuscripts have come to us. Prior to the third century, all writing was done on Papyrus which was used exclusively prior to the beginning of the third century by the fourth century, papyrus was beginning to be eclipsed by parchment1.
Papyri is a durable material when first produced, but ill equipped to survive the depredations of two millennia. Frequent wetting and drying or exposure to moisture quickly destroys the material, and insects such as white ants eat papyrus.
Our extant papyri manuscripts have only survived when preserved in very specific conditions. As a result, nearly all biblical Papyri extant today were discovered in Egypt, a land which naturally provides the arid environment optimal for preserving such material.
Many other somewhat later manuscripts have also been found there.The oldest manuscripts containing the whole New Testament are from the 4th century. The oldest known fragment of the New Testament is from the first half of the 2nd century, a copy of a passage from John's Gospel.
New Testament manuscripts can be roughly dated on the basis of (1) the writing material and (2) the style of writing. Carol F.
Ellertson, “New Testament Manuscripts, German scholars developed critical methods of editing classical Greek texts that spilled over into biblical textual criticism. Numbering about 2, manuscripts, lectionaries are church service books containing readings, or “lections,” from the Bible for each day of the church year.
Editing New Testament Arabic Manuscripts in a TEI-base: fostering close reading in Digital Humanities. Journal of Data Mining and Digital Human-ities, tranceformingnlp.com, , Special Issue on Computer-Aided Processing of Intertextuality in Ancient Languages.
1. Th e Editing of the New Testament KLOPPENBORG AND NEWMAN: EDITING THE BIBLE 3 3. Editing the Hebrew Bible manuscript of the Bible was the Aleppo codex (ca.
c.e.). Owing to its near destruction in a synagogue fire in , only two-thirds of this manuscript is extant.
The Leningrad codex B19A (/9 c.e.) remains. At least New Testament manuscripts and lectionaries (collections of Scripture texts grouped together for reading in public worship services) date from the second through the tenth centuries, constituting nearly 11% of all New Testament and lectionary manuscripts.
They are also lacking in the oldest Armenian version of the New Testament, in sixth-century manuscripts of the Ethiopic version and ninth-century Anglo-Saxon Bibles.
However, some 12th-century Gospels have the now-known resurrection verses written within asterisks-marks used by scribes to indicate spurious passages in a literary .