An examination of the culture of the fundamental muslim

Lecture This course is graded on the Undergraduate Regular scale. May be repeated within the term for a maximum 12 credits. Seminar 3 Credits Senior seminar on a specific topic of relevance to religious studies.

An examination of the culture of the fundamental muslim

Tuesday, February 14, WikiMedia Commons Astronomy may be the oldest natural science in the world. Before humans ever took to systematically studying the skies, we were craning our necks upwards, observing the curious movements of some bright points of light, and the stillness of others.

Civilizations around the world have incorporated astronomical observations into everything from their architecture to their storytelling and while the pinnacle of the science is most commonly thought to have been during the Renaissance, it actually began a thousand years earlier and 5, miles to the East.

This period of time from around AD until to the 13th century witnessed the suppression of intellectual thought and scholarship around the continent because it was seen as a conflict to the religious views of the church.

During this time the written word became scarce, and research and observations went dormant. This venerable text is still used as the main reference for ancient astronomy in academia to this day.

Muslim scholars waited years for this fundamental Greek text to be translated into Arabic, and once it was, they got to work understanding its contents. Ptolemy was trying to find an explanation for how these bodies orbited in the sky, including how the Earth moved within these parameters.

Ptolemy calculated that the wobble of the Earth, or precession as we now know it, varied 1 degree every years. Later, astronomer Ibn Yunus found that Ptolemy was quite wrong and that in fact it was 1 degree every 70 years.

This discovery by Ibn Yunus and others like Ibn al-Shatir changed the landscape of astronomy forever. The heliocentric model eventually proposed by Copernicus in the 16th century was built on this body of work.

Islam - Wikipedia From the Christian crusades of the Middle Ages to the fatwa on Salman Rushdie at the close of the millennium, the predominately Christian societies of Western Europe and North America have been suspicious and fearful of Muslims. Conversely, Muslim adherents of Islam find much in Western social values and practices antithetical to their tradition.
Muslim Consumer Group: Your Source for Halal Foods Information | Alerts However, the subjects to be examined per day will be in the same order for each course Adeeb, Mahir, Kamil, Fazil, Takhassus, Moallim and Vocational Courses.
Religious Studies Courses Mystical philosophy as Islamic philosophy It is important at the outset to ask what is meant by mystical philosophy in the context of the Islamic philosophical tradition.
An examination of the culture of the fundamental muslim Muslimthe word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, and means "submitter" or "one who surrenders". The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran.

WikiMedia Commons The math required for astronomy was also advanced in large part by Islamic scholars. They developed spherical trigonometry and algebra, two forms of math fundamental to precise calculations of the stars.

Since this was before the telescope had been developed, the astronomers of the time invented observational sextants. These tools, some as large as 40 meters, were critical to the study of the angle of the sun, movement of the stars, and the understanding of the orbiting planets.

This work would later prove to be useful to famed Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. He figured out that light traveled in a straight line into our eyes but not out. For hundreds of years it was thought by people like Ptolemy that our eyes actually emitted light, like an interior flashlight.

His work developed the camera obscura and eventually aided in the development of the telescope. Perhaps the most significant contribution Ibn al-Haytham gave to the world was a methodical way of conducting experiments repeatedly in order to test a theory, this became known as the scientific method, the foundation for science as we know it.

He should also suspect himself as he performs his critical examination of it, so that he may avoid falling into either prejudice or leniency. In AD the first university was built in Fez, Morocco. It was conceived of and started by Fatima al-Fihri, the daughter of a wealthy merchant.


Scholars from all over the world including Christian and Jewish scientists traveled there to study astronomy, math and philosophy. Many schools and mosques around this time were overseen and managed by Muslim women who themselves had been educated in subjects ranging from literature to algebra, a form of math also perfected by Islam.

One of the most well known astronomical tools called an Astrolabe was created by the Greek thinker Hipparcus but was perfected by islamic scientists, particularly women. Mariam al-Astrulabi was a Syrian female astrolab maker from the 10th century.

An examination of the culture of the fundamental muslim

In her honor, astronomer Henry E.Historiography: Historiography, the writing of history, especially the writing of history based on the critical examination of sources, the selection of particular details from the authentic materials in those sources, and the synthesis of those details into a narrative that stands the test of critical.

Women have traditionally played a vital part in Islam throughout Central Asia - the vast area from the Caspian Sea to Siberia. With this ground-breaking and original study, Razia Sultanova examines the experiences of Muslim women in the region and the ways in which religion has shaped their daily lives and continues to do so today.

Confucianism. Confucius (Kong Zi) lived from to BC in the state of Lu (in modem Shandong province). He came from a family of officials and his concern was with the restoration of the Way (Dao) of the ancient sages.

Antisemitism in Europe in the Middle Ages was largely influenced by the Christian belief that the Jewish people were collectively responsible for the death of Jesus, through the so-called blood curse of Pontius Pilate in the Gospels.. Persecutions against Jews were widespread during the Crusades, beginning in , when a number of communities, especially on the Rhine and the Danube, were.

Mystical philosophy in Islam. Mystical philosophy has an intimate connection with the mainstream of Islamic philosophy. It consists of several main strands, ranging from Isma'ili thought to the metaphysics of al-Ghazali and Ibn al-'Arabi, and with a continuing powerful presence in the contemporary Islamic world.

As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.

Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from

How Islamic scholarship birthed modern astronomy |