Onlookers raise their arms to acclaim the emperor The modern gesture consists of stiffly extending the right arm frontally and raising it roughly degrees from the body's vertical axis, with the palm of the hand facing down and the fingers stretched out and touching each other.
Subsequent events caused by the revolution include the Napoleonic warsthe restoration of the monarchy, and two additional revolutions as modern France took shape. The longer term European consequences include the counter-enlightenment and romantic movement in Germany which arose in reaction to the imposition of French rationalist culture.
This was accompanied by the reunification of Germany as a defensive measure against a future Napoleon. French revolutionary ideas also inspired and influenced Marxist revolutionary movements such as the Bolsheviks in Russia who followed the pattern established in France of large scale executions of the enemies of the people by impersonal government organs.
In France, not everyone sympathized with or supported the Revolution and no single, dominant or shared vision of governance developed.
There were too many monarchists to have a republic and too many republicans to have a monarch. The French revolution put nationalism on the political map. Declaration of Human Rights The concept that the people of a nation are citizens with rights was a fundamental assumption of the French Revolution.
Causes Historians disagree about the political and socioeconomic nature of the Revolution.
Another interpretation asserts that the Revolution resulted when various aristocratic and bourgeois reform movements spun out of control. According to this model, these movements coincided with popular movements of the new wage-earning classes and the provincial peasantry, but any alliance between classes was contingent and incidental.
Among the economic factors were: The social and psychological burdens of the many wars of the eighteenth century, which in the era before the dawn of nationalism were exclusively the province of the monarchy. The social burdens caused by war included the huge war debt, made worse by the monarchy's military failures and ineptitude, and the lack of social services for war veterans.
A poor economic situation and an unmanageable national debt, both caused and exacerbated by the burden of a grossly inequitable system of taxation.
The Death of Marat. By Jacques-Louis David. Considered to be one of the Greatest Paintings Ever.. Death of Marat () Contents • Description • Analysis and Interpretation • Interpretation of Other 18th-Century Paintings. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. The Tennis Court Oath by Jacques Louis David Sketch for a painting commemorating the Tennis Court Oath by David. Consciously modeled after the Oath of the Horatii.
The continued conspicuous consumption of the noble class, especially the court of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette at Versaillesdespite the financial burden on the populace. High unemployment and high bread prices, causing more money to be spent on food and less in other areas of the economy; Widespread famine and malnutrition, which increased the likelihood of disease and death, and intentional starvation in the most destitute segments of the population during the months immediately before the Revolution.
The famine extended even to other parts of Europe, and was not helped by a poor transportation infrastructure for bulk foods.
Resentment of royal absolutism; Resentment by the ambitious professional and mercantile classes towards noble privileges and dominance in public life with a clear picture of the lives of their peers in The Netherlandspresent-day Germany, and Great Britain etc. Finally, perhaps above all, was the almost total failure of Louis XVI and his advisers to deal effectively with any of the problems listed above.
Background and Values of the Revolution: French political philosophy The causes listed above did not determine the course and outcome of the revolution. What affected the decisions that were made were the assumptions and ideals of the participants.
The revolution—and the course that it took—was affected by the ideas of the French Enlightenment. Pre-revolutionary France was a complicated and very illogical place without common laws or institutions of government. In theory the king was the source of all law and administrative authority reigning by the grace of God.
In practice he was hemmed in by a multiplicity of customs and interests which made it almost impossible to change anything. For years intellectuals had been discussing how to change and regenerate French society but they did not have the power to make much difference as all power was in the hands of the nobility.
They had little practical experience of government.The Death of Marat. By Jacques-Louis David. Considered to be one of the Greatest Paintings Ever.. Death of Marat () Contents • Description • Analysis and Interpretation • Interpretation of Other 18th-Century Paintings. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from tranceformingnlp.com + free ebooks online.
Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. The French Revolution (–) was a period of ideological, political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French polity, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on Enlightenment principles of republicanism, citizenship, and rights.
Jacques Louis David's Oath of the Horatii, Tennis Court Oath, paintings, biographie, quotes, vita, gallery, socrates, obras, tableau, examined by Art Historian Dr.
Jacques-Louis David, The Tennis Court Oath (), Musée National du Château, Versailles.
Image source: CGFA. Notes: 1. At the center of the image, three figures embrace: the Protestant Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Etienne (, center), the Carthusian monk Dom Christophe-Antoine Gerle (, left), and the patriot .