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References Gaps in life outcomes, by socioeconomic status The charts below illustrate that people from lower-income families have lower high-school graduation rates, lower incomes, and higher likelihood of being arrested and incarcerated.
Information on the data follows. More information on the poverty line is available here.
Notes on the data used above Collecting data on the "socioeconomic status achievement gap" is relatively challenging, since it requires following a single set of people from childhood through adulthood.
The aim is to examine life outcomes by the socioeconomic status of the family they grew up in.
Socioeconomic status is an important source of health inequity, as there is a very robust positive correlation between socioeconomic status and health, other than for male homosexuals. This correlation suggests that it is not only the poor who tend to be sick when everyone else is healthy, but that there is a continual gradient, from the top to the bottom of the socio-economic ladder, relating status to health. About the Documentary UNNATURAL CAUSES explores how population health is shaped by the social and economic conditions in which we are born, live. Economic inequality in the United States has increased during the last two decades. The loss of manufacturing jobs and changes in taxation and income distribution policies since the early s have favored the rich and hurt the economic standing of the middle class and the poor (Barlett & Steele, ; Wilson, ).
The following charts are taken from data provided in Duncan full citation belowa paper that examines all individuals in the PSID sample who were born between and and whose families responded consistently between birth and age 15 Pg Gaps in life outcomes, by ethnicity The paper cited above, Duncan full citation belowshows that African-Americans and other minorities are more likely to have low socioeconomic status than whites.
The achievement gap between different ethnicities looks broadly similar to the achievement gap between people of different socioeconomic status, but there is frequently more and better data available on it likely because it is easier to record a subject's ethnicity than to record their childhood socioeconomic status.
Discussions in academic research frequently focus on the achievement gap between African-Americans and whites. The following charts illustrate the achievement gap between African-Americans and whites; though this data details below the charts is not strictly comparable to the above-cited data on the socioeconomic achievement gapit also implies a substantial gap in life outcomes.
Educational attainment data in the charts above comes from U.
Census Current Population Survey for available here. Earnings data comes from the U. Academic gaps at early ages The achievement gaps discussed above are sometimes attributed to the public school system, and there is some evidence of a "school quality" gap mirroring the achievement gap for example, see "Parsing the Achievement Gap" Pg 7.
However, while it is possible that improved schooling would lead to improved later-life outcomes, we find it very important to note that strong signs of the achievement gap are present before the age of five. The following charts illustrate that low-socioeconomic-status children underperform higher-socioeconomic-status children in kindergarten, and the gap widens only slightly afterward.
A similar picture holds for African-American children vs.
Data is taken from Rathbun full citation below. Note that this source provides mean scale scores, not percentile ranks; we converted the scores to percentile ranks by assuming a normal distribution and using the data on standard deviations found in Murnane the paper is not available online, but we provide the data and calculations in question here XLS format.
Interpretation There are widespread differences of opinion on the root causes behind the achievement gap. For our purposes, we find it unnecessary to take a position on what factor, or combination of factors, plays the largest part in the disparities discussed above; but we believe it is important to emphasize the largely undisputed point that the achievement gap cannot be entirely attributed to differences in people's environment and resources after the age of five; important differences in academic achievement are already present by the time people enter kindergarten.
This does not mean that post-kindergarten interventions are necessarily ineffective; but we believe it does justify approaching such interventions with skepticism, i.The Impact of Political, Economic, and Cultural Forces.
By William Julius Wilson.
T. in the United States routinely reflect the notion that people are poor and jobless the analysis I put forth in the fol-lowing sections. Political Forces Since , with the establish-. The United States and China recognize that our two economies are closely interconnected, and each country has a strong stake in the economic prosperity of the other.
The s saw the longest period of sustained economic and job growth the United States had experienced since at least World War II. Immigration—at both high and low ends of the labor market, both legal and illegal—was an important element in achieving the productivity and prosperity of the decade.
Moreover, economic analysis helps in assessing the causes of different economic problems, such as inflation, depression, and economic instability. It is performed by taking into consideration various economic variables, such as demand, supply, prices, production cost, wages, labor, and capital.
A growing trade war with the United States is causing rifts within China's Communist Party, with some critics saying that an overly nationalistic Chinese stance may have hardened the U.S.
The United States of America has the world's largest national economy. It makes up roughly 17 to 22 percent of the world's gross domestic product (GDP). The currency of the United States, the dollar, is the most widely used currency in international trade, as well as the world's foremost reserve currency.